Dreyfus and Dreyfus on competency development

Dreyfus and Dreyfus[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competence_%28human_resources%29#cite_note-1|]]] introduced nomenclature for the levels of competence in competency development. The causative reasoning of such a language of levels of competency may be seen in their paper on Calculative Rationality titled, "From Socrates to Expert Systems: The Limits and Dangers of Calculative Rationality". The five levels proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus were:
  1. Novice: Rule-based behaviour, strongly limited and inflexible
  2. Experienced Beginner: Incorporates aspects of the situation
  3. Practitioner: Acting consciously from long-term goals and plans
  4. Knowledgeable practitioner: Sees the situation as a whole and acts from personal conviction
  5. Expert: Has an intuitive understanding of the situation and zooms in on the central aspects
The process of competency development is a lifelong series of doing and reflecting. As competencies apply to careers as well as jobs, lifelong competency development is linked with personal development as a management concept. And it requires a special environment, where the rules are necessary in order to introduce novices, but people at a more advanced level of competency will systematically break the rules if the situations requires it. This environment is synonymously described using terms such as learning organization, knowledge creation, self-organizing and empowerment.
Within a specific organization or professional community, professional competency, is frequently valued. They are usually the same competencies that must be demonstrated in a job interview. But today there is another way of looking at it: that there are general areas of occupational competency required to retain a post, or earn a promotion. For all organizations and communities there is a set of primary tasks that competent people have to contribute to all the time. For a university student, for example, the primary tasks could be:
  • Handling theory
  • Handling methods
  • Handling the information of the assignment
The four general areas of competency are:
  1. Meaning Competency: The person assessed must be able to identify with the purpose of the organization or community and act from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community.
  2. Relation Competency: The ability to create and nurture connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks must be shown.
  3. Learning Competency: The person assessed must be able to create and look for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to complete the primary tasks and reflect on the experience.
  4. Change Competency: The person assessed must be able to act in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life.

TFPL Knowledge and Information Management Competency Dictionary©